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Personal Protective Equipment For Biosafety Laboratories(A)

Jan. 25, 2021

Biosafety protection

The first barrier: Biological safety equipment and personal protective equipment constitute the first barrier.

The second barrier: laboratory facilities are also called the second barrier, which refers to the special design and construction requirements of the laboratory.

The third barrier: The laboratory management system (software part) constitutes the third barrier of biosafety protection. Including standardized operating procedures and strict laboratory management.


Primary barrier

The primary protective barrier of the biosafety laboratory is: biosafety cabinet and personal protective equipment.

a) The biological safety cabinet is divided into 3 levels, Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ.

b) Personal protective equipment includes masks, masks, glasses, various protective clothing, caps, pants, shoes, boots, socks, gloves, etc.


Secondary barrier

The facility structure and ventilation design of the laboratory constitute a secondary protective barrier

According to the safety requirements of the laboratory, the laboratory is divided into clean area, semi-contaminated and polluted area.

The airflow direction of air conditioning and ventilation is always maintained: fresh air→HEPA→clean area→semi-polluted area→contaminated area→HEPA→exhaust. The negative pressure value of the level III biosafety laboratory is: contaminated area (40±5)Pa; semi-contaminated area: (20±5)Pa



Principles of Biosafety Protection

The contents of laboratory biosafety protection include:

1 Safety equipment, personal protective equipment

2 Laboratory special design and construction requirements

3 Strict management system and standard operating procedures

Ensure the safety of laboratory staff, experimental subjects and the surrounding environment


Primary (basic) protection

Suitable

Hospital pre-inspection triage, fever respiratory outpatient clinic, abnormal flu-like case observation room for medical staff engaged in diagnosis and treatment, entry quarantine institution engaged in health quarantine work, laboratory engaged in non-infectious material testing.

Protective Equipment

It is recommended to wear gloves when working clothes, disposable hats or working caps, surgical masks or medical protective masks come into contact with suspicious body fluids, secretions and other substances; when engaging in operations that may contaminate working clothes, wear isolation gowns.


Secondary (enhanced) protection

Suitable

The staff of the disease control agency who entered the epidemic area to carry out epidemiological investigation and disposal, as well as the inspectors who sampled and tested the cases in the laboratory.

Protective equipment DuPont Union protective clothing, disposable hats, medical protective masks (N95 masks), shoe covers, gloves; goggles or protective masks should be worn when performing operations that may produce splashes.


Level 3 (tight) protection

Suitable

Collecting and inspecting highly pathogenic pathogenic microorganisms.

Protective Equipment

On the basis of strengthening protection, increase the use of positive pressure masks or full-face respirators.


Protective equipment putting on and taking off sequence

Order of wearing protective equipment

Step 1: Wear a mask;

Step 2: Wear a hat;

Step 3: Wear protective gown;

Step 4: Wear protective glasses;

Step 5: Put on shoe covers;

Step 6: Put on gloves and put them on the cuffs of the protective clothing.


Protective equipment putting on and taking off sequence

Take off protective equipment sequence

Step 1: Take off the protective glasses and put them in the disinfectant

Step 2: Remove protective clothing

Step 3: Take off the gloves, put the disposable gloves inside out and put them in a yellow plastic bag

Step 4: Take off the protective clothing, put the inside out, and put it into the dirty clothes bag;

Step 5: Put your fingers back into the hat, gently take off the hat, inside out, and put it in a yellow plastic bag or dirty clothes bag

Step 6: Take off the mask and put it in a yellow plastic bag, taking care not to touch your face with your hands

Step 7: Take off the shoe cover, put the shoe cover inside out and put it in a yellow plastic bag;

Step 8: Wash hands and disinfect


Personal Protective Equipment

Refers to equipment and supplies used to prevent staff from being injured by physical, chemical and biological harmful factors


1 glasses (safety glasses, goggles)

2 head, face and respiratory tract (mask, face mask, personal respirator, gas mask, hat)

3 Body (experimental suit, isolation gown, one-piece suit, etc.

4 hands, feet (gloves, shoe covers)

5 ears (hearing protectors, etc.)


Principles for selecting personal protective equipment

Laboratory staff should choose personal protective equipment according to different levels of biological safety and the nature of work and master the correct method of use.


BSL-1 laboratory

Wear work clothes during the experiment;

Wear gloves when you have broken skin or rash on your hands;

Wear protective glasses when necessary.


BSL-2 laboratory

Meet the requirements of BSL-1

Wear overalls or overalls. When you leave the laboratory, you should take off the overalls and stay in the laboratory. The overalls should be disinfected first and then washed. Wear gloves when your hands may come into contact with infectious materials, contaminated surfaces or equipment, and should not leave the laboratory wearing gloves.

Disposable gloves must not be washed and reused.


When microbiological operations cannot be carried out in a biological safety cabinet and external operations must be taken, in order to prevent infectious materials from splashing or atomizing hazards, facial protection devices must be used.

Wear gloves when using infectious materials or contaminated equipment. Before using telephones, computers and other equipment for paperwork, you must take off your gloves.

Remember not to leave the BSL-3 laboratory with gloves. All items leaving the BSL-3 laboratory must be properly decontaminated and placed in a clean container or bag.


BSL-3 laboratory

Meet the requirements of BSL-2.

Personal protective equipment should be used when carrying out infectious tissue culture and potentially infectious aerosol operations.

When the aerosol cannot be safely and effectively restricted within a certain range, respiratory protection devices should be used

Before entering the laboratory, staff should wear back-opening or other protective clothing in the special locker room. Do not leave the laboratory in work clothes. Work clothes that are used again must be disinfected and then washed.


Gloves must be worn when working (two pairs are appropriate). Disposable gloves should be disinfected first and then discarded.

The laboratory should be equipped with effective disinfectants, eye cleansers or saline, and easy to access. Can be equipped with emergency medicines. All items in the BSL-3 laboratory should be properly decontaminated in accordance with corresponding regulations before leaving the laboratory.


BSL-4 laboratory

Meet the requirements of BSL-3

All infectious material operations should be carried out in a Class III biological safety cabinet. If the staff wear positive pressure overalls supplied by the life support system, the relevant operations can be carried out in a Class II Type B biological safety cabinet.

All staff should change a full set of laboratory clothing when entering the BSL-4 laboratory.


Decontamination treatment of personal protective equipment

Disposable lab coats, masks, gloves, shoe covers, etc. are sterilized with pressure steam 121c for 20-30 minutes and discarded

The reusable cotton fabric can be sterilized by pressure steam 121 for 20-30 minutes to be reused

The goggles are wiped and disinfected with 75% ethanol, or soaked in a disinfectant containing 1000mg/L of effective chlorine for 30-60 minutes.

The positive pressure protective coveralls is sprayed and disinfected with 75% ethanol, and then placed in an ethylene oxide sterilizer for disinfection.


Virus pollution protection

The contamination of humans by viruses is an important experimental safety issue. In addition to wearing isolation gown, sterile gloves, disposable masks, sterile hats, and safety goggles in the above-mentioned experimental operation, you should also pay attention to the following matters

1. The following disinfection liquids are necessary in the laboratory and replaced by personnel on duty to ensure effective disinfection:

(1) 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution;

(2) 1.0% Lysol solution;

(3) 75% ethanol solution and cotton ball






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