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Selection of Surgical Clothing And Drapery For Medical Institutions And Related Standards

Feb. 23, 2019

Surgical gown is a sterile device used to prevent cross - infection during surgery.For more than a hundred years, the materials used in the operating gown have been mainly pure cotton machine weaving, its use after disinfection and reuse.This not only makes its effect weakens gradually, causes the patient after the operation infection rate to increase, moreover because of its cloth surface villi falls off also can form the wound another source of infection.Since the 1990s, the western developed countries, relying on their advanced non-woven technology, took the lead in developing and using the disposable operating gowns and surgical pads made of non-woven cloth.At present, the disposable surgical gown has been widely used in developed countries.The performance of nonwoven operating gown has been accepted by clinical surgery, and its application prospect is very broad.

A. Performance and evaluation of nonwoven operating gown

The performance of nonwoven operating gown can be evaluated from the aspects of shielding performance, comfort performance, hygiene, biological performance and economic performance.

a. shielding performance

It refers to the ability of the operating gown to prevent bacteria from penetrating. It is the key index of the performance of the operating gown.For the excellent performance of the operating gown, can be used to test the impact of water flow, through the size of the water permeability to show the ability to water repellent.FZ/ t01038-1994 "test method for textile waterproof property and rain-proof permeability" or AA tcc42-94 "water shock permeability" were adopted as the test methods.General excellent surgical clothing should be less than 1g of water penetration;The other evaluation method is hydrostatic pressure method, which is generally greater than 2,844pa. The test method is AA tcc127-95.The United States generally adopts the water flow impact method, while Europe adopts the hydrostatic method.For the water-repellent performance, the general operating clothing can be used by the sticky water test, the test method is GB/ t4745-1997 "textile fabric surface moisture resistance determination: sticky water test", through the test sample sticky water area and standard sample comparison, the highest level is 5, the operating clothing should be generally higher than 4.The alcohol resistance of export products is also required, and the test standard is ist80.6-95, generally reaching grade 10.

b. comfortable performance refers to the degree of comfort that doctors wear during surgery, which can be expressed by softness and breathability.The softness test method is astm d 1388-96, the bending length should be less than 3cm;The test method of air permeability is astm0737-96, generally greater than 884L/ (s?M2).

c. Hygiene and biological properties

Hygienic performance refers to the degree to which the operating gown meets hygienic and biological requirements.Health indicators generally include: the total number of bacterial colonies should be less than or equal to 200cfu/ g, coliform bacteria should not be detected, staphylococcus aureus should not be detected, pseudomonas aeruginosa should not be detected, and fungi should be less than or equal to 20cfu/ g.The detection methods of health indicators are in accordance with the provisions of gb15979-1995 schedule A;Biological performance indicators generally include skin allergy, sensitization, oral toxicity, etc., and the test method is in accordance with the provisions of GB/ t14233.2 and GB/ 7919-1987.

d. Clinical evaluation of nonwoven operating gowns the clinical evaluation of nonwoven operating gowns can be conducted by combining quantitative and qualitative methods.The quantitative method is to measure the shielding performance of the operating gown by calculating the blood penetration rate of the operating gown.The penetration rate is the ratio between the number of blood penetration points and the total number of pollution points. Generally, the penetration rate of the disposable enhanced surgical gown is about 3%, while that of the reused surgical gown is about 90%.The qualitative method is the qualitative description of comfort and protection by doctors after surgery.Comfort can be expressed in five levels: very comfortable, comfortable, average, uncomfortable, very uncomfortable.The first three can be considered comfortable.

B. Classification and performance comparison of nonwoven operating gowns

The manufacturing methods of nonwoven surgical clothing can be divided into spunbond method, hot rolling method, SMS compounding method, spunlaced method, etc.For different production methods, the product performance is different.

a. spunbond surgical gown

Spunbond method of surgery to the general polypropylene section as raw material.Due to the hydrophobicity of polypropylene fiber, its operating clothes generally do not need to undergo anti-water treatment, and the color of the product is obtained by adding color masterbatch in the melting spinning process.The production cost of spunbond method is low, the shielding performance is poor, the comfortable performance is not good enough, the product has a sense of paper.

b. The short-fiber hot-rolled operating gown is made of polyester, polypropylene, polyvinylon and other synthetic fibers. The products generally do not undergo water-resistant finishing, and the color of the products can be obtained by mixing quantitative colored fibers.The performance of hot - rolled operating gown is similar to that of spunbond, but its strength is lower under the same gram weight.

c, SMS gown

SMS surgical clothing materials are generally used to polypropylene as raw material, will be made with its 2 layers of spunbond cloth and 1 layer of melt-spraying cloth composite together, two outer layers of spunbond cloth, the middle layer of melt-spraying cloth.The product does not undergo water-resistant finishing, and the color of the product is also obtained by adding color masterbatch to the spinning solution.SMS surgical clothing shielding performance is quite good, the disadvantage is poor air permeability, comfort, the product has a sense of paper.

d, the puncture gown

There are two kinds of pricking gowns.One is made of polyester and wood pulp, the other is a blend of polyester and viscose, and some are made from 100% cotton.Spines surgery clothes generally after the special anti - water, color finishing.Due to its unique process characteristics, its products are superior to other production methods in shielding performance, comfort performance and other main performance, but the production cost is relatively high.

C. Application of nonwoven surgical gown

a. application status

In developed countries in Europe and America, disposable non-woven surgical gowns have been basically popularized.In China, due to various reasons, the most commonly used surgical clothes in hospitals are machine woven ones. Only in a small number of hospitals, when the cotton surgical clothes are not available for use or for operations with infectious diseases, spunbond method, hot rolling method and spunlaced method are used in small quantities.

b. The prospect of application and the way of promotion the superior performance of disposable surgical clothing will promote its application process.Disposable operating gowns are much better than reusable ones in preventing blood penetration and thus cross-infection.According to the bacterial penetration test of foreign medical scientists, more than 5 x 103 bacteria will pass through the cotton fabric after 3 minutes, while the spunlaced nonwoven fabric will pass through after 20 hours.This is mainly due to the cotton fabric porosity, fuzzy, easy to depilate and not water repellent reasons, it is difficult to block the most harmful to the incision of 3 ~ 11 m bacteria.The rapid development of nonwovens industry in China has gradually reduced the cost of disposable nonwovens, which has created favorable conditions for the popularization and application of nonwovens.The continuous improvement of laws and regulations will also promote the popularization of nonwoven surgical gowns.Developed countries have legislation on the use of disposable surgical gowns, and violators will be held responsible for the consequences.With the continuous improvement of China's legal system, laws and regulations on the use of disposable surgical gowns will emerge as The Times require.The reform of the medical system will also promote the use of disposable surgical suits.The cost of disposable nonwoven operating gowns seems to be higher than that of cotton fabrics, but the repeated use of operating gowns has poor impedance and greatly increases the risk of postoperative infection, which may increase the medical expenses of patients.For the hospital, the reusable operating gown should be equipped with a complete set of equipment and personnel for washing and disinfection of the operating gown, plus spare parts, rotating products and rotating inventory, etc., so the total cost is no lower than that of the non-woven operating gown.

The post-treatment of disposable operating gowns should be socialized.The government should introduce policies to encourage enterprises to invest in the incineration industry of disposable operation clothes, so as to promote the promotion and application of disposable operation clothes.

Today for the developed countries is tomorrow for the developing countries.With the enhancement of China's comprehensive national strength, the improvement of people's living standards, the improvement of laws and regulations, the development prospect ofdisposable surgical clothing is very optimistic, it will become one of the pillar products of the nonwoven industry.


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